Russian Language Grammar

    Basic Plural Endings

There are two numbers in Russian: the singular and the plural.

Hard and Soft Nouns

Masculine nouns ending in a consonant add -ы in the plural. Other nouns replace their characteristic endings by those indicated in the table.

HARD NOUNS

Singular

Example

Plural

Example

Consonant

стол (table)

ы

столы

a

карта (card, map)

ы

карты

о

окно (window)

a

окна

SOFT NOUNS

Singular 

Example

Plural 

Example

MASC.

ь 

словарь (dictionary)

и

словари

й

музей (museum)

и

музеи

й

гений (genius)

и

гении

 

FEM.

ь

дверь (door)

и

двери

я

деревня (village)

и

деревни

я

история (story)

и

истории

 

NEUT.

е

поле (field)

я

поля

ё

ружьё (rifle)

я

ружья

е

здание (building)

я 

здания

Plural of Nouns with Stems Ending in , -к, -х, -ж, -ч, -ш, -щ, -ц

Hard masculine and feminine nouns with stems ending in -г,, -x,, ,, take -и in the plural:  

враг (enemy) враги

карандаш (pencil) карандаши

собака (dog) собаки

туча (cloud) тучи.

 

A few neuter nouns ending in -e take -a in the plural:  

сердце (heart) сердца

училище (school) училища.