Russian Language Grammar
- LETTERS AND PRONUNCIATION
- NOUNS (GENDER AND NUMBER)
DECLENSION OF NOUNS
- Declension of Masculine Nouns, Singular
- Declension of Neuter Nouns, Singular
- Declension of Feminine Nouns, Singular
- Declension of Nouns in the Plural
- Irregular Declensions in the Singular and Plural
- Declension of Proper Names
- Usage of Cases
- Structure and Verbal Forms
- Reflexive Verbs
- Impersonal Verbs
- Verbs of Motion
- Agreement of Verb Predicates with Subjects
- Table of Russian Irregular Verbs
Russian nouns are declined: their endings change according to the case. There are six cases. Their principal meaning is summarized below:
The Nominative expresses the subject or predicate in answer to: who? what? – кто? что?
The Accusative expresses the direct object in answer to: whom? what? – кого? что?
The other four cases are rendered into English with the aid of prepositions:
The Genitive answers the question: of whom? (whose?) of what? – кого? (чей?) чего?
The Dative answers the question: to whom? to what? – кому? чему?
The Instrumental answers the question: by whom? with (by) what? – кем? чем?
The Prepositional answers the question: about whom? about what? where? – о ком? о чём? где?
The use of a case may also be determined by a preposition, a verb, or a special construction (such as an expression of time). This will be discussed in detail in the "Usage of Cases" chapter.