Russian Language Grammar

    Conjunctive Words

These words (conjunctions, adverbs, pronouns) not only establish a relation between the main and the subordinate clauses, but also refer specifically to one word of the main clause, even if sometimes this word is only implied:

Я знаю город, где они живут.

I know the town where they live.

Я слышал (то), что вы сказали ему.

I heard what you told him.

The difference between a conjunctive word and a conjunction proper may be illustrated by comparing the last example above with:

Я слышал, что вы сказали ему всё.

I heard that you told him everything.

The conjunctive words который and какой agree in gender and number with the word to which they refer. They do not agree in case – or else only fortuitously. (The case is governed by the structure of the subordinate clause.)

Вот дом (masc, sing., nom.), в котором (masc, sing., prep.) он живёт.

Here is the house in which he lives.

Видите девочку (fem., sing., acc.) которая (fem., sing., nom.) читает?

Do you see the girl who is reading?

Я нашёл книгу (fem., sing., acc.), которую (fem., sing., асc.) вы искали.

I found the book you were looking for.

Там такие высокие дома (plur., nom.), каких (plur. gen.) вы здесь не увидите.

There there are tall houses such as you won't see here.