Russian Language Grammar

    Endings of Adjectives

Adjectives have three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) and two numbers (singular, plural). The endings in the plural are the same for all genders. Adjectives are declined; they agree in number, gender, and case with the noun which they modify.

Endings, Singular

 

MASCULINE

FEMININE

NEUTER

HARD

-ый

or

-ой

красный

большой

-ая 

красная

-ое 

красное

SOFT

-ий

синий

-яя 

синяя

-ее 

синее

Stress: The masculine ending -ый is never stressed: красный, новый. The ending -ой is always stressed: большой, дорогой. Soft adjectives are never stressed on the ending:  летний, средний.

 Stems in -н

In soft adjectives, the stem ends in -н. Most of these adjectives refer to time or place.

LIST OF CURRENTLY USED SOFT ADJECTIVES

GROUP  1   (Time)

утренний

morning

 

весенний   

spring

вечерний   

evening   

летний   

summer

ранний

early

осенний

autumn, fall

поздний

late

зимний

wintry

завтрашний

tomorrow's

прежний

previous, former

теперешний

present, current

древний

ancient, antique, old

тогдашний

of that time

прошлогодний

last year's

давний

ancient, old

трёхлетний (четырёхлетний, etc.)

three-year (four-year, etc.)

 GROUP 2   (Place) 

здешний

local

 

дальний

distant

верхний

upper

внутренний

inner, internal

нижний

lower

внешний

outer, external

передний

front

крайний

extreme

средний

middle; average

соседний

neighboring

задний

rear

последний

last

  GROUP 3   (Various meanings)

синий

blue

домашний

home; domestic

лишний

extra, superfluous

искренний

sincere

посторонний

alien, strange

Examples : 

вечерняя газета

evening paper

дальний родственник

distant relative

лишнее слово

extra word

домашние животные

domestic animals

Mixed Adjectives

The so-called "mixed adjectives" have both hard and soft endings. Actually, adjectives ending in  ж, ч, шщ, such as свежий  (fresh), горячий  (hot), хороший   (good),  общий  (general,  common),  are soft. Adjectives ending in г, к, х, such as строгий (strict), русский (Russian), тихий (quiet), are hard.  The endings in хорошая, русский, etc., simply follow the "spelling rule" (see "Pronunciation").

Plural of Adjectives

As mentioned above, there is no distinction in the plural of adjectives as regards gender. Hard adjectives end in -ые; soft in -ие.

Hard:   новые заводы, фабрики, здания.

Soft:    здешние магазины, дороги, поля.